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Issue № 32. June 2012

Dilemma of Russian Education in the 1990’s

Inna Y. Kostjuchenko

Ph.D., professor, School of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University.

This article is devoted to the problems of education policy in the Russian Federation in the 1990’s. Relying on the wide range of literature and other sources the author considers the most important directions of the state government analyzing positive and negative consequences and contradictory trends of the education policy in 1990’s. In the article the author points out that in the education system there was no common opinion about the perspectives and lines of development. This situation was extremely dangerous as it was threatening to spill over into a serious irreversible educational crisis. The main conclusion according to the results of the sociological research is that a considerable majority of teachers, school principals and universities took in positively the main result of the reformation of educational sphere – a conversion to variational education being presented in the more unrestricted choice of the content and technologies of education, creating different models of educational institutions. Moreover it’s almost unanimously noted that it got harder for schools and universities to carry out their activity in modern conditions.

Summarizing the existing data about the situation in education it can be stated that the key problems of the education reform are the following.

1.The quality of education.
An isolation of education from the personal and socially-important problems is continuing, the system of education is still generally oriented on the reproduction of existing knowledge instead of developing the efficient thinking.
The principal purpose of education – giving an opportunity to all students without any exception to show their gifts and creative abilities – is not reached completely. The only way to reach this goal is to continue creating different educational programs and different kinds of educational institutions providing the individualization of the educational process.
2.The availability of education.
The system of education is unable to completely satisfy people`s constitutional rights of education. The availability of education depends on social status, place of living, national and religious differences. Consequently the social inequality increases considerably.
Equal access to education must be realized according to such educational values as abilities, talents and effort. The government and the society have to solve the problem of correlation of the equal access to education and equal initial opportunities.
3.Education management.
Education management doesn`t correspond to the modern purposes of its development. It is  necessary o create a new strategy, aimed at the correlation of effective management with independence of different levels of management. There are no mechanism of compensation of financing of education by regions, or for an effective use of budget means and the attraction of non-budget ones to the education system, the transparence of financing, an efficient management of limited financial resources.


Education, education management, radical changes.

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